Basics of object-oriented programming


Basics of object-oriented programming

What is OOP

Object-Oriented Programming or simply just OOP is a programming standard based on the idea of "objects", which can contain information, in the form of fields (aka attributes/properties), and code, in the form of procedures (aka methods). A feature of objects is an object's procedure that can access and usually alter the data fields of the object with which they are related.

In OOP, PC programs are designed by making them out of objects that interact with one another. There are several OOP languages, yet the most well-known ones are class-based, meaning that objects are examples of classes, which also determine their types.

OOP focuses on the objects that programmers need to manipulate as opposed to the logic required to manipulate them. This way to deal with writing computer programs is appropriate for programs that are large, complex, and actively updated or maintained.

Object-Oriented Programming concepts


Polymorphism refers to the capability of OOPs programming languages to differentiate between entities with a similar name accurately. This is done by Java with the help of the signature and assertion of these entities.


Encapsulation is described as the wrapping up of information under a particular unit. The component ties together code and the information it controls. Another approach to consider encapsulation is, it is a defensive shield that keeps the information from being accessed by the code outside this shield


Inheritance is a significant pillar of OOP(Object Oriented Programming). It is the tool in java by which one class is permitted to inherit the features of another class.


A class is a user-defined design or model from which objects are made. It speaks to the set of properties or techniques that are common to all objects of one class.


Information Abstraction is the property by which just the important details are shown to the user. The unimportant or non-essentials units are not shown to the client. Ex: A vehicle is seen as a vehicle as opposed to its individual parts.


Objects speak with each other by sending and accepting data to one another. A message for an article is a solicitation for the execution of a system and in this manner will summon a capacity in the accepting item that creates the ideal outcomes. Message passing includes indicating the name of the article, the name of the capacity, and the data to be sent.


A "Method" is a collection of statements that perform some particular assignment and return results to the caller. A Method can perform some particular assignment without bringing anything back. Methods allow us to reuse the code without retyping the code. In Java, each method must be a part of some class that is different in relation to languages like C, C++, and Python.

Message Passing

Objects speak with each other by sending and receiving data from one another. A message for an article is a request for execution of a system and in this manner will invoke a function in the accepting object that creates the ideal outcomes. Message passing includes indicating the name of the object, the name of the function, and the data to be sent.

Benefits of OOP include code reusability, scalability, and productivity. Even when using microservices, programmers should continue applying the principles of OOP.

A significant number of the widely used programming languages are multi-paradigm and they support Object-Oriented programming to a more noteworthy degree, usually in combination with basic, procedural programming. Significant Object-Oriented languages include:

  • Java
  • C++
  • C#
  • R
  • PHP
  • Ruby
  • Perl
  • Object Pascal
  • Objective-C
  • Dart
  • Swift

Scope of Object Oriented Programming

1.    Client-Server Systems

Object-oriented Client-Server Systems give the IT infrastructure, making object-oriented Client-Server Internet (OCSI) applications. Here, infrastructures mean operating systems, networks, and hardware. OSCI comprises of three important technologies:

  • The Client Server
  • Object-Oriented Programming
  • The Internet

2.    AI Expert Systems

These are computer applications that are created to resolve complex problems of a particular domain, which can not be solved the human brain. It is Reliable, Highly responsive, Understandable, High-performance.

3.    Real-Time System Design

Real-time systems obtain complexities that make it hard to build them. Object-Oriented procedures make it simpler to deal with those complexities. These procedures present methods of managing these complexities by giving an integrated system that incorporates schedulability analysis and behavioral specifications.

4.    Object-Oriented Databases

These databases attempt to keep up a direct correspondence between the real-world and database objects so as to let the object keep their identity and integrity. They would then be able to be distinguished and worked upon.

5.    Hypertext And Hypermedia

Object-Oriented Programming also helps in designing out a system for Hypertext. Basically, hypertext is like regular text as it can be stored, searched, and altered without any problem. The main contrast is that hypertext is text with pointers to other text too.

Hypermedia, however, is a superset of hypertext. Files having hypermedia not just contain links to different pieces of text and data, but also numerous other types of media, ranging from pictures to sound.

6.    Office Automation Systems

These incorporate formal as well as informal electronic systems primarily concerned about data sharing and communication to and from individuals inside just as outside the association.

Examples are:

  • Email
  • Word processing
  • Web calendars
  • Desktop publishing

7.    Neural Networking And Parallel Programming

It addresses the issue of prediction and estimation of complex time-varying systems. Initially, the whole time-varying procedure is divided into a few time intervals or openings. At that point, neural networks are created in a specific time span to scatter the load of different networks. OOP simplifies the whole procedure by improving the forecast and estimate the abilities of networks.

8.    Simulation And Modelling System

It's hard to model complex frameworks because of the changing specs of variables. These are predominant in medication and different regions of natural science, for example, zoology, and agronomic systems. Simulating complex frameworks requires demonstrating and understanding communications expressly. Object-Oriented Programming gives a different way to deal with simplifying these complex modeling frameworks.

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